Aluminum Structure Welding

Aluminium and its alloys are used in fabrications because of their low weight, good corrosion resistance and weldability. Although normally low strength, some of the more complex alloys can have mechanical properties equivalent to steels. The various types of aluminium alloy are identified and guidance is given on fabricating components without impairing corrosion and mechanical properties of the material or introducing imperfections into the weld. Aluminium alloys are ubiquitous in transport applications because they provide engineering materials with good strength-to-weight ratios at reasonable cost. Further applications make use of the corrosion resistance and conductivity (both thermal and electrical) of some alloys. Although normally low strength, some of the more complex alloys can have mechanical properties equivalent to steels. Owing to the many benefits of aluminium alloys offered to industry, there is a need to identify best practices for joining them.

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Tel: 0086-021-57629806

NOCountryChina(GB/T)American AAJapan JISGerman CORUSBritain DINFrance NFRussian ГOCTIndia ISISOEN
1Grade2A01BД17/1170
2StandardsGB/T3190-1996ГOCT4785-1974
32A06Д16/1190
4GB/T3190-1996ГOCT4785-1974
52A10B65/1165
6GB/T3190-1996ГOCT4785-1974
72A112017/A92017A2017Д1/111024534AL Cu4MgSi
8GB/T3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4000-1999
JIS H4040-1999
ГOCT4785-1974IS733-2001
IS737-2001
ISO 209.1-1989
92A112024A2024AICuMg2/3.13552024(A-U4G1)Д16/116024530AICu4Mg1EN AW-2024/AI Cu4Mg1
10GB/T3190-1996AAJIS H4000-1999
JIS H4040-1999
DIN 1725-1-1986NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ГOCT4785-1974IS 5902ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
112A162219/A92219A2219Д20/1201AICu6MnEN AW-2219/AI Cu6Mn
12GB/T3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4000-1999
JIS H4040-1999
ГOCT4785-1974ISO209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
132A702618/A92618A2618AK4-1/1141
14GB/T3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4140-1988ГOCT4785-1974
152A80A2N01AK4/1140
16GB/T3190-1996JIS H4140-1988ГOCT4785-1974
172A902018/A92018A2018AK2/1120
18GB/T3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4140-1988ГOCT4785-1974
1920112011/A92011A2011AICuBiPb/3.16552011(FC1)2011(A-U5PbBi)~Д1/1110AI Cu6BiPbEN AW-2011/AI Cu6BiPb
20GB/T3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4040-1999
JIS H4080-1999
DIN 1725-1-1986BS 1470-1988NF 50-411ГOCT4785-1974ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
2120142014/A92014A2014AICuSiMn/3.16552014(H15)2014(A-U4SG)AK8/138024345AI Cu4SiMgEN AW-2014/AI Cu4SiMg
22GB/T3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4000-1999
JIS H4040-1999
DIN 1725-1-1986BS 14710-1988NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ГOCT4785-1974IS733-2001
IS737-2001
ISO209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
232014A2014AA2014AAI Cu4SiMg(A)EN AW-2014A/AI Cu4SiMg(A)
24GB/T3190-1996AAJIS H4100-1999
JIS H4040-1999
ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
252017A2017A/A92017A2017AAICuMg1/3.13252017A(A-U4G)AK21/112024534AI Cu4MgSi(A)EN AW-2017A/AI Cu4MgSi(A)
26GB/T3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4040-1999
JIS H4080-1999
DIN 1725-1-1986NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ГOCT4785-1974IS733-2001
IS737-2001
ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
2720242024/A92024A2024AICuMg2/3.13552024(A-U4G1)Д16/116024530AI Cu4Mg1EN AW-2024/AI Cu4Mg1
28GB/T3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4100-1999
JIS H4040-1999
DIN 1725-1-1986NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ГOCT47785-1974ГOCT47785-1974IS 739-2001EN 573-3-1994
2921242124/A92124Д16Л/1161EN AW-2124/AI Cu4Mg1(A)
30GB/T3190-1996AA/UNSГOCT4785-1974EN 573-3-1994
3121172117/A92117A2117AICu2.5Mg0.5/3.13052117(A-U2G)AI Cu2.5MgEN AW-2117/AI Cu2.5Mg
32GB/T3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4040-1999DIN 1725-1-1986NFA50-451ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
3322142214/A92214~ AK8/1380EN AW-2214/AI Cu4SiMg(B)
34GB/T3190-1996AA/UNSГOCT4785-1974EN 573-3-1994
3522182218/A92218A22182218(A-U4N)
36GB/T3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4140-1988NF 50-411
3726182618/A92618A2618AK4-1/1141
38GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4140-1988ГOCT 4785-1974
392001/A920012001(A-U6MT)EN AW-2001/AI Cu5.5MgMn
40AA/UNSNF A50-101EN 573-3-1994
412007/A92007AICuMgPb/3.1645EN AW-2007/AI Cu4PbMgMn
42AA/UNSDIN 1725-1-1986EN 573-3-1994
435A02(LF2)5052/A95052A5052AIMg2.5/3.35235052(NS4)5052(A-G2.5C)AMr2/1520AI Mg2.5EN AW-5052/AI Mg2.5
44GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4040-1999
JIS H4100-1988
DIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.BS 1470-1988NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ГOCT 4785-1974ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
455A03(LF3)5154/A95154A51545154A(NS5)5154A(A-G3C)AMr3/1530AI Mg3.5EN AW-5154A/AI Mg3.5(A)
46GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4000-1999BS 1470-1988NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ГOCT 4785-1974ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
475A05(LF5)5456/A95456~A5056AIMg5/3.35555056(A56S)~AMr5/1550AI Mg5Mn1~EN AW-5019/AI Mg5
48GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4040-1999
JIS H4080-1999
DIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.BS 1470-1988ГOCT 4785-1974ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
495A06(LF6)A5005AMr6/1560
50GB/T 3190-1996JIS H4040-1999
JIS H4100-1988
ГOCT 4785-1974
5150055005/A95005A50055005(N41)5005(A-G0.6)AMr1/151051000-AAI Mg1(B)EN AW-5005/AI Mg1(B)
52GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4040-1999
JIS H4100-1988
BS 1470-1988NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ГOCT 4785-1974IS733-2001
IS737-2001
ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
5350195019/A95019AIMg5/3.35555019(NB6)AMr5/1550EN AW-5019/AI Mg5
54GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSDIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.BS 1470-1988ГOCT 4785-1974EN 573-3-1994
5550505050/A95050AIMg1.5/3.33165050(2L44)5050(A-G1.5)AMr1/151051000-BAI Mg1.5(C)EN AW-5050/AI Mg1.5(C)
56GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSDIN 1725.1-1986/W-NBS 1470-1988NF A50-451ГOCT 4785-1974IS733-2001
IS737-2001
ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
5750525052/A95052A5052AIMg2.5/3.35235052(2155)5052(A-G2.5C)AMr2/1520AI Mg2.5EN AW-5052/AI Mg2.5
58GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4000-1988DIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.BS "L"NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ГOCT 4785-1974ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
595056(LF5-1)5056A95056A5056AIMg5/3.35555056(NG6/2L58)AMr5/1550AI Mg5CrEN AW-5056A/AI Mg5
60GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4040-1999
JIS H4080-1999
DIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.BS 1470-1988/BS "L"ГOCT 4785-1974ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
6150835083/A95083A5083AIMg4.5Mn/3.35475083(NT8)5083(A-G4.5MC)54300AI Mg4.5Mn0.7EN AW-5083/AI Mg4.5Mn0.7
62GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4040-1999
JIS H4080-1999
DIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.BS 1470-1988NF A50-411
NF A50-451
IS733-2001
IS737-2001
ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
6350865086/A95086A5086AIMg4Mn/3.35455086(A-G4MC)AMr4/1540AI Mg4EN AW-5086/AI Mg4
64GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4000-1999
JIS H4080-1999
DIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ГOCT 4785-1974ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
6551545154/A95154A51545154(A-G3C)AMr3/1530AI Mg3.5
66GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4040-1999
JIS H4100-1988
NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ГOCT 4785-1974ISO 209.1-1989
675154A5154A5154A(NS5)53000AI Mg3.5(A)EN AW-5154A/AI Mg3.5(A)
68GB/T 3190-1996AABS 1470-1988IS733-2001
IS737-2001
ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
6951825182/A95182A5182AIMg5Mn/3.35495182(A-G4.5M)EN AW-5182/AI Mg4.5Mn0.4
70GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4000-1999DIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.NF A50-481EN 573-3-1994
7151835183/A95183A5183AIMg4.5Mn/3.35475183(NG8)(~A-G4.5MC)AMr4.5AI Mg4.5Mn0.7(A)EN AW-5183/AI Mg4.5Mn0.7(A)
72中国(GB/T)美国AA日本JIS德国CORUS英国DIN法国NF俄罗斯ГOCT印度IS国际标准化组织ISO欧洲标准 EN
7352515251/A95251AIMg2Mn0.3/3.3525
251(N4/3L80)
5
5251(A-G2M)AMr2/152052000AI Mg2EN AW-5251/AI Mg2
74GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSDIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.BS 1470-1988/BS "L"NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ГOCT 4785-1974IS733-2001
IS737-2001
ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
7553565356/A95356A5356AI Mg5Cr(A)EN AW-5356/AI Mg5Cr(A)
76GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS Z3232-1986ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
7754545454/A95454A5454AIMg2.7Mn/3.35375454(N51)5454(A-G2.5MC)AI Mg3MnEN AW-5454/AI Mg3Mn
78GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4040-1999
JIS H4100-1999
DIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.BS 1470-1988NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
7954565456/A5456~AMr5/1550AI Mg5Mn1~EN AW-5456A/AI Mg5Mn1(A)
80GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSГOCT 4785-1974ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
8155545554/A95554A55545554(N52)AI Mg3Mn(A)EN AW-5554/AI Mg3Mn(A)
82GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4160-1994BS 1470-1988ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
835049/A95049AIMg2Mn0.8/3.35275049EN AW-5049/AI Mg2Mn0.8
84AA/UNSDIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.NF A50-451EN 573-3-1994
855556/A95556A55565556(N61)55380EN AW-5556A/AI Mg5Mn
86AA/UNSJIS H33263-1992BS 1470-1988IS733-2001
IS737-2001
EN 573-3-1994
875654/A95654A5654EN AW-5654/AI Mg3.5Cr
88AA/UNSJIS H4000-1988EN 573-3-1994
896A02(LD2)~6151A6165AISiMgCu/3.3214AB/1340
90GB/T 3190-1996AAJIS H4040-1999
JIS H4100-1999
DIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.ГOCT 4785-1974
9160056005/A96005AI SiMgEN AW-6005/AI SiMg
92GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
936005A6005AAIMgSi0.7/3.3210AI SiMg(A)EN AW-6005A/AI SiMg(A)
94GB/T 3190-1996AADIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
9560826082/A96082AIMgSi1/3.23156082(A-SGM0.7)AД35/135064430AI SiMgMnEN AW-6082/AI SiMgMn
96GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSDIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ГOCT 4785-1974IS733-2001
IS737-2001
ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
9763516351/A96351AB/1340AI SiMg0.5MnEN AW-6351/AI SiMg0.5Mn
98GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSГOCT 4785-1974ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
9960606060/A96060AIMgSi0.5/3.32066060(A-GS)AI MgSiEN AW-6060/AI MgSi
100GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSDIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.NF A50-411ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
1016061(LD30)6061/A96061A6061AIMgSi1Cu/3.32116061(N20/H20)6061(A-GSUC)AД33/133065032AI Mg1SiCuEN AW-6061/AI Mg1SiCu
102GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4040-1999
JIS H4000-1999
DIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.BS 1470-1988NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ГOCT 4785-1974IS733-2001
IS737-2001
ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
1036063(LD31)6063/A96063A60636063(HT9)(~A-GS)AД31/131063400AI Mg0.7SiEN AW-6063/AI Mg0.7Si
104GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4040-1999
JIS H4100-1999
BS 1470-1988NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ГOCT 4785-1974IS733-2001
IS737-2001
ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
1056063A6063AAI Mg0.7Si(A)EN AW-6063A/AI Mg0.7Si(A)
106GB/T 3190-1996AAISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
10761016101/A96101A6101~E-AIMgSi0.5/3.3207E-AI MgSiEN AW-6101/E-AI MgSi
108GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4180-1990DIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
1096101A6101A6101A(E91E)E-AI MgSi(A)EN AW-6101A/E-AI MgSi(A)
110GB/T 3190-1996AABS 2898-1988ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
1116081/A960816081(A-SGM0.3)EN AW-6081/AI Si0.9MgMn
112AA/UNSNF A50-451EN 573-3-1994
1136262/A962626262AI Mg1SiPbEN AW-6262/AI Mg1SiPb
114AA/UNSBS 2898-1988ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
1156463/A964636463(91E/E6)EN AW-6463/AI Mg0.7Si(B)
116AA/UNSBS 1474-1988EN 573-3-1994
1177A01(LB1)7072/A97072A7072AI Zn1/3.4415Aц1EN AW-7072/AI Zn1
118GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4000-1999DIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.ГOCT 4785-1974EN 573-3-1994
1197A03(LC3)B94/1940
120GB/T 3190-1996ГOCT 4785-1974
1217A04(LC4)7010/A970107010B95/1950AI Zn6MgCuEN AW-7010/AI Zn6MgCu
122GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSBS 1470-1988ГOCT 4785-1974ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
1237A05(705)7005/A97005A7N01AцM74530AI Zn4.5Mg1.5MnEN AW-7005/AI Zn4.5Mg1.5Mn
124GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4080-1999
JIS H4000-1999
ГOCT 4785-1974IS733-2001
IS737-2001
ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
1257A10(LC10)~7079
126GB/T 3190-1996AA
1277A52(LC52\5210)~7017/A97017≈1925
128GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSГOCT 4785-1974
1297003(LC12)7003/A97003A7003EN AW-7003/AI Zn6Mg0.8Zr
130GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4040-1999
JIS H4100-1999
EN 573-3-1994
13170057005/A97005A7N0174530AI Zn4.5Mg1.5MnEN AW-7005/AI Zn4.5Mg1.5Mn
132GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4080-1999
JIS H4000-1999
IS733-2001
IS737-2001
ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
13370207020/A9020AIZn4.5Mg1/3.43357020(A-Z5G)~1925CAI Zn4.5Mg1EN AW-7020/AI Zn4.5Mg1
134GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSDIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ГOCT 4785-1974ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
13570227022/A97022AIZn1MgCu0.5/3.4345EN AW-7022/AI Zn5Mg3Cu
136GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSDIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.EN 573-3-1994
13770507050/A97050A7050AI Zn6CuMgZrEN AW-7050/AI Zn6CuMgZr
138GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSJIS H4080-1999
JIS H4000-1999
DIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr.BS 1470-1988NF A50-411
NF A50-451
ГOCT 4785-1974IS733-2001
IS737-2001
ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
13974757475/A9475AI Zn5.5MgCu(A)EN AW-7475/AI Zn5.5MgCu(A)
140GB/T 3190-1996AA/UNSISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
1417010AI Zn6MgCuEN AW-7010/AI Zn6MgCu
142AAISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
1437012EN AW-7012/AI Zn6Mg2Cu
144AAEN 573-3-1994
1457049A7049A(A-Z8GU)AI Zn8MgCuEN AW-7049A/AI Zn8MgCu
146AANF A50-411
NF A50-451
ISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
1477178AI Zn7MgCuEN AW-7178/AI Zn7MgCu
148AAISO 209.1-1989EN 573-3-1994
Alloy DesignationChemical DesignationClassificationFillerApplication
EN AW-1080AEN AW-Al 99.8(A)NHTR-1080AChemical plant
EN AW-3103EN AW-Al Mn1NHTR-3103Buildings, heat exchangers
EN AW-4043AEN AW-Al Si5(A)--Filler wire/rod
EN AW-5083EN AW-Al Mg4.5Mn0.7NHTR-5556AShips, rail wagons, bridges
EN AW-5251EN AW-Al Mg2Mn0.3NHTR-5356Road vehicles, marine
EN AW-5356EN AW-Al Mg5Cr(A)--Filler wire/rod
EN AW-5556AEN AW-Al Mg5Mn--Filer wire/rod
EN AW-6061EN AW-Al Mg1SiCuHTR-4043A
R-5356
Structural, pipes
EN AW-7020EN AW-Al Zn4.5Mg1HTR-5556AStructural, transport
HT = Heat treatable, NHT = Non Heat treatable

Arc Welding

Arc welding is commonly used for joining aluminium alloys. Most of the wrought grades in the 1xxx, 3xxx, 5xxx, 6xxx and medium strength 7xxx (e.g. 7020) series can be fusion welded with arc-based processes. The 5xxx series alloys, in particular, have excellent weldability. High strength alloys (e.g. 7010 and 7050) and most of the 2xxx series are not recommended for fusion welding because they are prone to liquation and solidification cracking.

  • Can you weld aluminium with MIG? MIG welding can be successfully used to join aluminium alloys. The process is best suited for thinner gauges of material, such as aluminium sheet, because the amount of heat required is less when compared to thicker plates. Pure Argon is the preferred shielding gas for this process and the welding wire/rod used should be compositionally as similar as possible to the parts being welded
  • Can you weld aluminium with TIG? TIG welding can also be used for joining aluminium alloys. Owing to the high thermal conductivity of bulk aluminium, the TIG process enables sufficient generation of heat to keep the weld region hot enough to create a weld pool. TIG welding can be used to join thick and thin sections. Similarly to MIG welding, pure argon is the preferred shielding gas and the welding wire/rod used should be compositionally similar to the parts being welded.

Laser Welding

Like other fusion based processes, including arc welding, laser beams can be used to weld many series of aluminium alloys. Laser welding is typically a faster welding process compared to other welding processes due to its high power density at the material’s surface.  Keyhole laser welding is capable of producing high aspect ratio welds (narrow weld width: large weld depth), resulting in narrow heat-affected zones. Laser beam welding can be used with crack sensitive materials, such as the 6000 series of aluminum alloys when combined with an appropriate filler material such as 4032 or 4047 aluminum alloys. Sheilding gases used are selected dependent on the aluminium grade to be joined.

Electron Beam Welding

Similarly to laser welding, electron beams are good at producing fast welds and small weld pools. Electron beams are also better at producing welds in very thick sections of aluminium. Unlike other fusion-based processes, electron beam welding occurs in a vacuum, meaning that a shielding gas is not required, resulting in very pure welds.

Proper filler metal selection (filler wire or filler rod), carefully selected welding parameters and joint design are essential in order to minimise the risk of hot cracking in aluminium alloys when using fusion welding processes like arc, electron beam and laser welding.

Friction Stir Welding Aluminium

Friction Welding

Friction welding is a solid-state joining process (i.e. no melting of the metal occurs), which is particularly suitable for joining aluminium alloys. Friction welding is capable of joining all series of aluminium alloys, including 2xxx and 7xxx, which are difficult with fusion-based processes. Moreover, owing to the nature of the solid-state process, the need for shielding gas is eliminated and superior mechanical performance of the weld region is obtained when compared to fusion welding processes. There are several friction processing variants:

  • Friction stir welding (FSW). FSW was developed at TWI Ltd in 1991. FSW works by using a non-consumable tool, which is rotated and plunged into the interface of two workpieces. The tool is then moved through the interface and the frictional heat causes the material to heat and soften. The rotating tool then mechanically mixes the softened material to produce a weld. The process is typically used for joining aluminium sheet/plate material
  • Refill friction stir spot welding (RFSSW). RFSSW is a development of the FSW process and is used as a spot welding technique to replace rivets in aluminium sheet metal applications
  • Linear friction welding (LFW). LFW works by oscillating one workpiece relative to another while under a large compressive force. The friction between the oscillating surfaces produces heat, causing the interface material to plasticise. The plasticised material is then expelled from the interface, causing the workpieces to shorten (burn-off) in the direction of the compressive force. During the burn-off the interface contaminants, such as oxides and foreign particles, which can affect the properties and possibly the service life of a weld, are expelled into the flash. Once free from contaminants, pure metal to metal contact occurs, resulting in a weld. The process is used for joining bulk aluminium components to produce near-net-shapes
  • Rotary friction welding (RFW). RFW is similar to LFW with the exception that the bulk aluminium parts are cylindrical and rotated to generate frictional heat instead of linearly oscillated

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